Andreadis, Harriette. Sappho in Early Modern England: Female Same-sex Literary Erotics, 1550-1714. University of Chicago Press, 2001. Includes original views on Ephelia and her female community, as represented in Female Poems…by Ephelia (1679, 1682); see hypertext link for Andreadis.

Arber, Edward, ed. The Term Catalogues, 1668-1709. London, 1903-6. Documents the term date (Spring) and sale price (1s., bound) of Female Poems…by Ephelia, sold by James Courtney, Golden Horse Shoe, Saffron Hill, London.

Banfield, Stephen. "Cecil Armstrong Gibbs." The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. ["Grove 6."] Stanley Sadie, editor. 20 volumes. London, 1989, VII:35-38. Verses by Ephelia were set by Moses Snow, Thomas Farmer, Wm Turner, and, in the 20thC, Dr Cecil Armstrong Gibbs, who set one of Ephelia’s most-anthologized lyrics to “J.G.” See Chapter V of this document, ‘Ephelia in English Song.’

Barber, G.G. "Flowers, The Butterfly, and Clandestine Books." Bulletin of the John Rylands University Library of Manchester 68, no. 1 (1985):11-33. (Barber's "Butterfly" is not Lady Mary Villiers, but Jean-Michel Papillon, the Paris engraver.)

Berghman, G.S. Études sur la Bibliographie Elzevirienne, basées sur l'Ouvrage Les Elzeviers de M. Alphonse Willems. Stockholm, 1885.

--------. Nouvelle Études sur la Bibliographie Elzevirienne. Stockholm, 1897.

--------. Catalogue Raisonné des Impressions Elzeviriennes de La Bibliothèque Royale de Stockholm. Stockholm, 1911.

Betcherman, Lita-Rose. "The York House Collection and Its Keeper." Apollo. New Series. 92 (July-Dec., 1970):250-9.

Bowers, Jane and Judith Tick, eds. Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150- 1950. Urbana, 1987.

Brown, Christopher. "Allegory and Symbolism in Van Dyck." Wort und Bild .... Eds. Herman Vekeman and Justus Muller Hofstede. Netherlands: Erfstadt, 1984, 12-5.

Brown, Mary Elizabeth. Dedications: An Anthology of Forms Used from the Earlier Days of Book-making to the Present Time. New York and London, 1913.

Burghclere, Winifred (Gardner), Baroness. George Villiers, Second Duke of Buckingham. London, 1903. Valuably mentions the rumor and "tradition" of Mary Villiers’s duel with a romantic rival ("Such a reputation [Thomas Howard's, as a libertine and fearsome duelist], however, had nothing alarming to Mary Villiers, who, if tradition is to be believed, had herself fought a duel with a female rival"), p 140. Author's copy.

Burke, Sir Bernard. The General Armory of England, Scotland, Ireland & Wales. London, 1842; 5th rpt., 1962.

Burnet, Bishop Gilbert. History of My Own Time. Ed. Osmund Airy. 2 vols. Oxford, 1897, 1900.

Burns, Edward, ed. Reading Rochester. Liverpool: Liverpool UP, 1995.

Chernaik, Warren. "Ephelia's Voice: The Authorship of Female Poems (1679)." PQ (Spring, 1995): 151-167.

Caines, Michael. "The Fair Ephelia." TLS, Commentary, 5 Dec. 2003, p.15. One-half page, doubtless tossed off in a haze of journalistic speed. A callous dismissal of the entire Villiers case as "nonsense" and of this archive as merely "careless." Among the eight letters sent to Adrian Tahourdin, TLS "Letters" editor, protesting Caines's short piece, two strong replies were printed on the January 2nd, 2004, "Letters" page, by Dr Linde Brocato and myself.
           I publicly thank the following for prompt support on that occasion: Patricia Hargis, ESTC Office; Philip Milito, Berg Collection, NYPL; Arthur Wrobel, Editor Emeritus, American Notes & Queries; Philip R. Bishop, Proprietor, Mosher Books, PA.; Georgina Colwell, Soprano, & Musical Director/Producer, Musicair Ltd., Hersham, Surrey UK; Elizabeth Skerpan-Wheeler (Southwest Texas State U., San Marcos, TX), and Linde Brocato (University of Illinois, Urbana; Yavapai College, AZ). I also thank Mr Tahourdin and Alan Jenkins, Deputy Editor, TLS, for just and generous management of this absurd little spat.

Cliffe, J.T. The World of Country Houses in the Seventeenth Century. Yale UP, 1999.

Coffin, Robert P. Tristram. The Dukes of Buckingham: Playboys of the Stuart World. New York, 1931.

Colwell, Georgina Anne. This Scepter'd Isle: English Romantic Songs. Compact disk recording. Loud & Bunch Productions, Hersham, Surrey, 1993. This CD includes Colwell’s recorded performance of a Gibbs setting of an Ephelia poem. See Chapter V of this archive.

D'Aulnoy, Marie Catherine le Jumelle de Berneville, Countess. Mémoires de la Cour d' Angleterre. Paris, 1695. English-language edition translated and annotated by Mrs William Henry (Lucrecia) Arthur. New York, 1913. (Author's copy) Valuably includes a reconstruction of Mary Villiers’s “butterfly” prank on the future Charles II, and other details touching her highly-placed coterie. D’Aulnoy (Dunois), a frequent visitor to the Stuart court, sat to Sir Peter Lely; see her Mémoires for an engraving of that portrait.

Davies, David W. The World of the Elzeviers. The Hague, 1954. Mentions the Mathys printers at Leiden, and others, as imitation-Elzevier printing firms.

Ebsworth, Joseph Woodfall et al., ed. The Roxburghe Ballads. 10 volumes in 9. Hertford: For the Ballad Society by S. Austin & Sons, 1871-97.

"Ephelia," pseud. See Villiers, Lady Mary.

Fey, Allan. Some Beauties of the Seventeenth Century. London: Methuen & Co., 1906. With several plates. (Author's copy) Valuably documents the vogue of fencing among noblewomen at the Stuart court, such as Hortense Mancini, Duchess of Mazarin (Chapter I).

Frye, Susan, and Karen Robertson. Maids and Mistresses, Cousins and Queens: Women’s Alliances in Early Modern England. Oxford UP, 1999. Includes Ephelia’s female community in Female Poems…by Ephelia (1679, 1682). An important contribution.

Georgecink, Susan Hrach. Commentary, with full-page facing facsimile, on the amusing fictitious portrait of 'Ephelia' in Female Ephelia (1679, 1682). In Reading Early Modern Women: An Anthology of Texts in Manuscript and Print, 1550-1700. Eds Helen Ostovich & Elizabeth Sauer. London & NY: Routledge, 2004.
        Georgecink discusses the portrait as a tantalizing 'puzzle picture' of encoded signs and clues, possibly related to the book's author. Concludes that the portrait is but one of Mary Villiers' famous tricks: "...the image here, as well as the text of Female Ephelia, contains interesting signs to suggest that Ephelia may have been Lady Mary Villiers .... the book [and the portrait] becomes of great interest to feminist literary critics and historians as the work of the most highly placed woman writer at the second Caroline court" (p 490).

Gibbs, Cecil A. Why Do I Love? London: Boosey & Hawkes, 1937. Seven-page score for voice and piano. Sibley Music Library, Eastman School of Music.

Gordenker, Emilie E.S. Anthony Van Dyck (1599-1641) And The Representation Of Dress In Seventeenth-Century Portraiture. Belgium: Brepols, 2001. An impressive and original analysis of Van Dyck’s methods of “undressing” his female sitters, using two of his portraits of Mary Villiers as a “touchstone”. A valued contribution.

Gosse, Sir Edmund. "Katherine Philips, 'The Matchless Orinda'." In Seventeenth-Century Studies. London, 1883; 2d ed., 1885.

Goulden, Richard J. The Ornament Stock of Henry Woodfall, 1719-1747. London, 1988.

Greer, Germaine, et al., ed. Kissing The Rod: Seventeenth-Century Women's Verse. New York, 1988. A generous exposure of Ephelia’s verse, amongst many new feminist anthologies; several selections.

--------. "How To Invent A Poet." Greer's unsolicited screed review of Poems by Ephelia, ed M.E. Mulvihill. TLS (25 June 1993). Mulvihill's response, TLS (3 September 1993).

--------. Slip-Shod Sibyls.... Middlesex, England: Penguin/Viking, 1995.

Gramont, Philibert, Comte de. Mémoires, as told to Lord Anthony Hamilton. Paris, 1713. Translated and edited by Nicholas Deakin. London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1975. Valuably mentions court women’s clever modes of transmitting secret intelligence in muffs, letters, etc. (Mary Villiers may have used her gloves, as she herself suggests in a riveting portrait of her by Van Dyck, imaged in this archive.)

Hardman, S.J. Sir Anthony Van Dyck: The English Portraits. Atlanta, GA: Corvo-Wilde Society, 1999. Concurs that the argument for Mary Villiers as “Ephelia’ is an important case: “Since her [Mulvihill’s] 1992 publication (Poems by Ephelia, NY, 1992; second printing, 1993], Mulvihill has assembled an important case for Lady Mary Villiers as the enigmatic ‘Ephelia’ ” (p 14).

Harris, Brice. "Captain Robert Julian, Secretary to the Muses." ELH 10 1943, 294-309.Valuably attributes the important “Julian” poem to Mary Villiers’s younger brother, George Villiers, second Duke of Buckingham.

Hartmann, Cyril Hughes. La Belle Stuart.... London, 1924. (Author's copy.)

--------. Charles II and Madame. London, 1934.

Hast, Freda. "Villiers [married name Stuart], Mary, duchess of Lennox and Richmond (1622-1685), courtier." Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 2004. With B&W image of Van Dyck portrait of Villiers (c. 1637) "as St Agnes," patroness of betrothed couples and brides.
        Hast offers a brief, closely sourced factual overview of Villiers' life, with the splendid contemporary commentary on Villiers as being "the most 'rejouissante' (amusing) woman in the world," as Isaac de Bartet ("a French agent in England") wrote to Cardinal Mazarin in December, 1660. Yet Hast's representation of Mary Villiers oddly omits essential commentary, published well before 2004, by Sir Oliver Millar, Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr., Emilie E.S. Gordenker, Maureen E. Mulvihill, et al., as well as the 'royal Van Dyck' of Mary Villiers (bearing the distinctive cipher of Charles I's art collection) at the Historical Portraits gallery, Mayfair, London, 2002 <> (see 'Discoveries' link), valuation £1.6M. Portrait purchased (Spring 2006), Timken Museum, San Diego, CA; see Timken newsletter (Spring 06) at (see 'News' link). Hast does mention the Villiers attribution for 'Ephelia,' as recorded in the current ESTC records.

Heller, Janet Ruth. "A 17th-Century Poet Reconsidered." Review of the author's Poems by Ephelia. Illustrated feature-review. Belles Lettres 20 (January, 1996): 42,56.

Heppner, Dr John. Correspondence with the author, 11 March 1996.

-------- "Shall Mary Villiers... Have a Butterfly Patronym", "Lepidoptera News" (June, 2000,) 17. Ills. Rptd. in Antenna Jan., 2001), 6-8. Ills.

Hutton, Ronald. Charles II. Oxford, 1989.

Hobby, Elaine. A Virtue of Necessity. London, 1988. Holds the view of Ephelia as an impenetrable enigma.

Isham, Sir Gyles, ed. Correspondence of Bishop Brian Duppa and Sir Justinian Isham. Northamptonshire: Northamptonshire Record Society Publications 15 (1950/51), 1955.

Jesse, John Heneage. Memoirs of the Court of England During the Reign of the Stuarts. 6 vols. Boston, 1815.

John, Gwen. "Ephelia: An Unknown Poet of the Restoration." Fortnightly 108 (1920).

Lamoine, Georges. Review of Mulvihill's Ephelia. Études Anglaises (January-March 1996): 87- 88.

King, Steve. "November 23rd." Today in Literature website, November 24, 2004, <>.
        An enjoyable commentary, with hyperlinks and a color image of a Van Dyck portrait of Lady Mary Villiers with ducal coronet, on the first published writing of 'Ephelia' (Villiers), being the handsome 50-line political broadsheet, A Poem To His Sacred Majesty, On the Plot. Written by a Gentlewoman...Licensed Nov.23.1678. Roger L' Estrange. Printed for Henry Brome at the Gun in St Paul's Churchyard, [London]."

Larsen, Erik. L' opera complete di Van Dyck. 2 vols. Milan, Italy: Rizzoli, 1980.

--------. Paintings of Anthony Van Dyck. 2 vols. Frenen, Germany: Luca Verlag, 1988.

Lockyer, Roger. Buckingham. New York and London, 1981, 1984 ed. (Signed Author's copy)

--------. Correspondence, from London, with the author, 27 February 1996.

Lord, George deF., et al., eds. Poems On Affairs of State, 1660-1714. 6 vols. New Haven, 1963-71.

McKerrow, Ronald B. Printers' and Publishers' Devices..., 1485-1640. London, 1913; 2d ed., 1949.

MacLeod, Catharine and Julia Marciari Alexander. Painted Ladies: Women at the Court of Charles II. National Portrait Gallery, London, in association with the Yale Center for British Art, New Haven, CT., 2001. Exhibition Catalogue. Profusely ills., color plates. (Author's copy)

Messenger, Anne. His & Hers. Kentucky, 1987.

Milhous, Judith and Robert D. Hume. "Some 'Lost' English Plays, 1600-1700." HLB 25 (1977):5-33. Includes Ephelia’s pre-empted and “damn’d” farce-burlesque against, evidently, Charles II and his brother, James Duke of York, her Pair-Royal of Coxcombs…Acted at a Dancing-School, four fragments of which are published in Female Poems…by Ephelia (London, 1679, 1682).

Millar, Sir Oliver, G.C.V.O., F.B.A. Van Dyck: A Complete Catalogue of the Paintings by Susan J Barnes, Nora de Poorter, Horst Vey, and Oliver Millar. Paul Mellon Centre Publications, 2003. Author’s Copy. Valuably includes an heretofore unpublished portrait of Mary Villiers; locations Syon House UK, as (improbably) Anne, Countess of Northumberland; Gripsholm, as Henrietta Maria; Bisham Abbey, as Mary Villiers. See Millar, IV.A34, p 641.

Morrah, Patrick. Prince Rupert of the Rhine. London, 1976.

Muffet, Sir Thomas. Theatrum Insectorum. London,, 1634. English-language edition, Cotes, 1658. Rpt., Da Capo Press, 1967. (Author's copy)

Mulvihill, Maureen E. "Ephelia." A Dictionary of British & American Women Writers, 1660-1800. Edited by Janet Todd. NJ: Rowman & Allanheld, 1985; 2d ed., with updates & amendments, 1987. With (fictitious) frontispiece portrait (1679) in paperback edition.

--------. "Ephelia." British Women Writers. Edited by Janet Todd. NY: Continuum, 1989.

--------. "A Feminist Link in the Old Boys' Network: The Cosseting of Katherine Philips." Curtain Calls, eds. M.A. Schofield and Cecilia Macheski. Athens, Ohio, 1991, 71-104. Four images, including the Vander Gucht bust of Philips, engraved by William Faithorne, from the author’s 17thC copy of Philips’s Poems. .

--------, ed. Poems by Ephelia (circa 1679): The Premier Facsimile Edition of the Collected Manuscript and Published Poems. With a Critical Essay and Apparatus. New York & Switzerland, 1992, 2d printing 1993. 19 images. Copies stocked by selected antiquarian book sellers (e.g., Second Life Books, Lanesborough, MA; copy now sold). For product description, see Barnes & Noble webpage.

--------. "Mary (Stuart née Villiers), Duchess of Richmond & Lennox (1622-1685): The New Candidate for Ephelia." Women's Writings: The Elizabethan to the Victorian Period. Fall (1995), 309-311 <>. The début of this developing, new case.

--------. "Butterfly On The Wheel of Scholarship: Ephelia." Note. Restoration. Fall (1995): 132.

--------. "Butterfly of the Restoration Court: A Preview of Lady Mary Villiers, the New "Ephelia" Candidate." American Notes & Queries (Fall, 1996), 25-39. Four images.

--------with Georgina Colwell. "Ephelia Setting on CD." Note. Restoration (Fall, 1997), 114.

_____. "Ephelia." An Encyclopedia of British Women Writers. Eds. Paul and June Schlueter. 2d ed., enlarged. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1998. The authoritative profile, to date.

--------. "The Eureka! Piece in the Ephelia Puzzle and a New Location for Rahir Fleuron No. 203 (Elzevier, 1896)." ANQ (Summer, 1999): 23-34, 6 images. Valuably traces the 17thC origin of the engaging butterfly-&-swords vignette on the title-page of Female Poems…by Ephelia (London, 1679) to the Mathys firm at Leiden, imitation-Elzevier printers, thus expanding Rahir’s locations for Fleuron 203.

--------. "BookTalk, for Editors, Scholars, & Researchers. Early-modern English Printed Books. A Check-List of Sources, with Bibliography." (October, 1999). <>.

--------. "Butterfly in My Net: Lepidoptera, Literature, and the Ephelia Poet."Lepidoptera News"(June, 2000) 12-16. 4 images. Excerpt from printed version, at <>

--------. Preliminary note on my key to Female Poems (1679). Princeton Research Forum Newsletter (January, 2000), p. 2.

--------. "Ephelia, Butterfly Poet." TLS (1 Sept. 2000), 17. Announces the first moth patronym for the Ephelia poet; see image, Appendix E of this archive.

--------. "Sly Stuart Duchess: The Many Masks of Mary Villiers." The Female Spectator. Hampshire, England: Chawton House Library of Early Women Writers, Summer, 2002, pp 1-6. Handsome cover essay with four images.

--------. "Ephelia." English Short-Title Catalogue of Early Printed Books. See ESTC R6418, R21721, R24055, R218925, R40072, and ESTC "Ephelia" Authorities Record NAFL8557363. Updated and amended, 2001, 2005 (recording 1660 and 1663 locations of the Royal factotum in ESTC R40072, as displayed in this archive's Appendix D commentary), and 2006; all updates coordinated by Patricia Hargis, ESTC Office, University of California at Riverside, with gracious assistance in 2001 from Stephen Tabor, Rare Books Curator, Huntington Library, San Marino, California. ESTC R40072 (Appendix D of this archive) updated Autumn, 2006.

--------. "Ephelia and Lady Mary Villiers: The Fruits of a Complex Search." Seventeenth-Century News. Announcements section. Spring-Summer, 2003, pp 187-9.

--------. ed. Ephelia. Hants, UK; Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Group, 2003. With introduction, textual notes, and four images, two being portraits of Mary Villiers by Van Dyck. Review of record, Philip Milito, NYPL Berg Collection, SCN (Spring-Summer 2004), 119-124; for a digital rendering, see listing in navigational sidebar to this archive.

--------. "Ephelia." In The New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature. Volume 2, 1500-1700. Edited by Douglas Sedge. Cambridge UP, 3rd ed., forthcoming. Cross-listed as Lady Mary Villiers, Duchess of Richmond & Lennox. However, on 2oth March 2008, contributors to this 20-year project were notified by the publisher, over email, that this entire multi-volume project had been canceled (yes, sad and shocking news). It is now hoped that the publisher will find some way to 'repurpose' the many fine and dedicated submissions (i.e., bibliographies) which it has received from dedicated scholars these many years. Thus, the present authoritative bibliographical record for the Ephelia texts is the English Short Title Catalogue (ESTC), now conveniently online; see .

--------. Consulting Editor. Ephelia webpages, with apparatus. Poem 157 (To One That Asked Me Why I Loved J.G.) and Poem 309 (To Madam Bhen [Behn]). Poem Of The Week website, Professor Brian Habing, Managing Editor.

--------. Commentaries, with full-page facing facsimiles, of two 'Ephelia' selections. In Reading Early Modern Women: An Anthology of Texts in Manuscript and Print, 1550-1700. Eds Helen Ostovich & Elizabeth Sauer. London & NY: Routledge, 2004. This impressive collection includes over 80 contributions, with commentary and facing facsimile, on women's "texts" in several media (published writings, musical scores, decorative arts, portraiture, and the graphic arts). The editors wrote, "... the question of 'Ephelia''s authorship has been the subject of extensive scholarly debate, which has yielded intriguing results, if not a highly probable identification" (p 362).

--------. "Under the Hammer: The Brett-Smith Library Auction (Sotheby's, London, 27 May 2004)."Restoration (Fall, 2004):49-50. With notes. Foregrounds high-end sales at this important auction, including the Sir Edmund Gosse copy of Female Ephelia (1679), with Gosse bookplate, which brought £3360 (this figure includes buyer's premium) from a private library in England. Gosse had written on the 'Ephelia' matter in Seventeenth-Century Stds., 2d ed. (1885).

Neave, Sheffield Airey, ed. Nomenclator Zoologicus. 4 vols. London, 1936-49, II:236. Valuably documents in Schiner’s work of the 1860s the name ‘Ephelia’ in 19thC dipteralogical classification; see Schiner, below.

Newcombe, Thomas. "Bibliotheca." London, 1712.

Nickell, Joe. Pen, Ink & Evidence: A Study of Writing & Writing Materials for Penman, Collector, and Document Detective. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 2000.

O'Neill, John H. "George Villiers, Second Duke of Buckingham." Dictionary of Literary Biography. Ed. Paula R. Backscheider. Volume 80. Detroit, 1989. 245-62, ills.

--------. George Villiers, Second Duke of Buckingham. Boston, MA.: Twayne Publishers, 1984.

Ohlmeyer, Jane H. Civil War and Restoration in the three Stuart Kingdoms: The Career of Randal MacDonnell, Marquis of Antrim, 1609-1683. Cambridge UP, 1993. Close documentation on Lady Mary Villiers's mother, Lady Katherine ('Kate') Manners, and 'Kate''s second marriage, after the murder of Buckingham in 1628, to the Irish Catholic clansman, Randall MacDonnell, Earl of Antrim, c. 1635.

Page, Judith. "Fashioning an Identity of the Libertine Woman in Female Ephelia." Thesis. Oklahoma, 1995. Ills.

Papworth, John W. Ordinary of British Armorials. London, 1874; 1961 ed. Lists and describes the Tilly coat, which appears in the fictitious author portrait, Female Poems…by Ephelia (London, 1679, 1682).

Parry, Graham. "Van Dyck and the Caroline Poets," Van Dyck 350. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1994, 247-60. (Author's copy)

[Pepys, Samuel.] The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Eds. Robert Latham and William Matthews. 11 vols. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970-1983. Mentions Mary Villiers’s amusing Royal horoscope hoax and also Henrietta Maria’s close ties to Henry (Jermyn), first Earl of St Albans (Pepys adds the contemporary ‘spin’ of a possible child from this union).

Phillips, John Pavin. "Orinda's Descendants." Notes and Queries. Second Series. No. 115, V (18 March 1858):202-3.

Plomer, Henry, ed. Dictionary of the Printers and Booksellers...1668-1725. Oxford, 1922.

Polybius. Polybii Lycortae F. Megalopolitani Historium. Amsterdam, 1670. Displays the Mathys device, used in 1679 by Mary Villiers for her poetry-book.

Rahir, Édouard. Catalogue d' Une Collection Unique de Volumes Imprimés par Les Elzevier et Divers Typographes Hollandais du XVIIe Siècle. Paris, 1896. See Mulvihill, above, ANQ (Summer 1999).

Raven, Charles. English Naturalists from Neckham to Ray. Cambridge, 1947.

Roberts, Josephine A. "Extracts from Arcadia in the Manuscript Notebooks of Lady Katherine Manners." N&Q 28, no. 226 (February, 1981): 35-36. (Mother of Mary Villiers, supporting the view held by some feminist scholars of continuing literary talent in the descending female line of women writers.)

Rostenberg, Leona. "The House of Elzevier." In Bookman's Quintet: Five Catalogues About Books. Newark, 1979.

Sawyer, Cheryl. The Winter Prince. Forthcoming, 2007. Historical novel on the storied liaison between Mary Villiers and Prince Rupert. For Sawyer’s stunning webpage, see

Schiner, J. R., ed. Catalogus systematicus dipterorum Europae. W.M.W. Impensis: Societatis Zoologico-Botanicae, 1864. See Neave, above.

Scouten, Arthur H. Correspondence with the author, 16 March 1991.

Sergeant, Philip W. My Lady Castlemaine. Boston, 1911.

Schneller, Beverly E. Review of the author's Poems by Ephelia. The Eighteenth Century: A Current Bibliography. Baton Rouge, LA., c. 1997. Exact date to be confirmed.

Shawcross, John. Correspondence with the author, 16 December 1996.

Stapleton, M.L. "Thou idle Wanderer, about my Heart: Rochester and Ovid." Restoration (Spring, 1998), 10-30.

Skerpan, Elizabeth P. Review of the author's Poems by Ephelia. Quarterly Journal of Ideology (June 1994): 95-99.

Spanheim, Fredreich. Oratorio Inauguralis de Prudentia Theologi. Lugduni Batavorum, 1670. Displays the Mathys device, copied or replicated in 1679 by the printer, William Downing, for the title-page of Mary Villiers’s poetry-book.

Spenser, Edmund. "Muiopotmos; or, The Fate of the Butterflie [1590]." Spenser: Poetical Works. Eds. J C Smith and E. DeSelincourt. Oxford, 1912; 1969, 516-20.

Stern, Madeleine B. "Auctions - Elzeviers - And Beyond." In Leona Rostenberg and Madeleine B. Stern, Connections: Our Selves, Our Books. Santa Monica, 1994.

Strickland, Agnes. Lives of the Queens of England. 12 vols. London, 1840-8. Queen Victoria Edition. XVI vols. Philadelphia: George Barrie, 1902. Mentions Mary Villiers’s close ties to Henrietta Maria and Mary’s attraction to Catholicism, such as her frequent conversations with the Queen’s spiritual advisors, especially during the Stuart exile.

Todd, Janet. The Secret Life of Aphra Behn. London: Andre Deutsch, 1996. Author's copy. Valuably mentions Ephelia as a corporeal, living woman writer of Behn’s circle; indeed, Behn’s “friend”.

Thomson, Katherine Byerley. The Life and Times of George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. 3 vols. London, 1860.

Travitsky, Betty S., ed. The Paradise of Women: Writings by English Women of the Renaissance. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Inc., 1981. (Author's copy)

Underdown, David. The Royalist Conspiracy in England, 1649-1660. New Haven, 1960.

Van Dyck. See listings above for Millar, Wheelock, and Wilton House.

Vieth, David M. Attribution in Restoration Poetry: A Study of Rochester's Poems of 1680s. New Haven, 1963. Valuably offers scholars of attribution a methodological procedure, Vieth’s “principle of probability,” in working with the large corpus of fugitive literatures of the 17thC; see p 37-49, et passim. No scholar before or since Vieth has come forward with a reasonable mode of procedure and assessment. His good direction in attributional matters has yet to be superceded.

Villiers, George, 2d Duke of Buckingham. Poems... By George, late Duke of Buckingham. London, 1714.

Villiers, Mary (pseud., Ephelia). A Poem To His Sacred Majesty, On The Plot. Written by a Gentlewoman. Licensed broadside. London: Henry Brome, 1678.

--------. "A Poem as it was Presented To HIS SACRED MAJESTY On the Discovery of the Plott. Written by a Lady of Quality." [London], 1679. No Imprint. With important woodcut factotum (with inset letter type, “H”); prior locations, 1660 and 1663, see Appendix D of this archive.

--------. Female Poems On several Occasions. Written by Ephelia. London: William Downing for James Courtney [Courtenay], 1679. (Author's copy.)

--------. Advice To His Grace. [London], c. 1680/1681. Slip-format Broadside, addressed to James, Duke of Monmouth. Subscribed, Ephelia. No imprint; privately printed.

--------. Female Poems On Several Occasions. Written by Ephelia. The Second Edition, with Large Additions. London: James Courtney, at the Golden Horse Shoe, Saffron Hill, 1682.

--------. "A funerall Elegie on Sr. Thomas Isham Barronet."Portland MS PwV 336. University of Nottingham Library. Subscribed "Ephelia." In an elegant calligraphic script, with catchword, editorial revisions, and marginal brackets, all in the same hand.

--------. "A Royal Van Dyck." Historical Portraits (Mayfair, London), see (see "Discoveries" link). Excellent biographical profile of Mary Villiers, by James Mulraine, Head of Research, with details on a widow portrait of Lady Mary, by Van Dyck; provenance: Royal Collection, Charles I, with royal cipher; thereafter, upon the death of Mary Villiers (1684/1685 N.S.), Legge Collection, earls of Dartmouth. Valuation £1.6M. In The British Face exhibition, Historical Portraits, Winter Exhibition, 2002. See also, "Hidden Cipher Proves Van Dyck is Lost Royal Painting" by Will Bennett, Telegraph, filed 25 November 2002; also available online, with color image of the portrait. A copy of this widow portrait is in the Worsley collection, Hovingham Hall, Yorkshire. Its original was purchased by the Timken Museum, San Diego, CA., Spring 2006; see (see 'News' link).

Wall, Glenda. "Marie-Catherine..., Baronne d' Aulnoy." Encyclopedia of Continental Women Writers, ed. K.M. Wilson. 2 vols. NY: Garland Publishing Co., 1991. I: 61-63. Dispels the perception amongst some scholars of D’Aulnoy (Dunois) as an unreliable historical writer and utter fantasist.

Warburton, Eliot. Memoirs of Prince Rupert and the Cavaliers. 3 vols. London, 1849. Documents the Rupert-Mary Villiers flirtation (or liaison?). See Cheryl Sawyer’s forthcoming historical novel, The Winter Prince (2007);

Waterhouse, Ellis. Painting In Britain, 1530-1790. New York, 1953, 1994.

Weiss, Harry B. "Thomas Moffett, Elizabeth Physician and Entomologist." Scientific Monthly 24 (1927): 559-566.

Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. "Lady Mary Villiers and Lord Arran." Anthony Van Dyck. Eds. Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr., Susan J. Barnes, et al. NY: Abrams, 1990: 296-299, color plate No. 78. Exhibition catalogue, Van Dyck 350, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 11 November 1990 to 24 February 1991. (Author's copy)

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